are diseases (sometimes they are called orphan diseases) are such illnesses that affect only the smallest part of the human population. To stimulate the research of these diseases and find the effective treatment a financial support from the government is often required.
Many of the orphan diseases are genetic ones and torture the person during the whole life even in the cases of a long latent period when the symptoms remain implicit for a long period of time. Many rare diseases tent to appear in an early childhood and nearly 30 % of children suffering from them don’t reach the age of 5 years old.
There is no single level of a particular disease dissemination to provide the reasons for considering it to be a rare or a common one. A disease may supposed to be a rare one in the one country or a detached community and widespread in another.
- The Stendhal syndrome. If a person suffering from this unusual disease founds himself in a place where there are many art objects, for example an exhibition, he begins to feel dizzy, sane experience rapid heart beating or sometimes even hallucinations. One of the most dangerous places is the Uffizi Art Gallery in Florence. The disease was described on the basis of the tourists’ complaints while their visit to the gallery. The Stendhal syndrome received its name after the famous writer who described his diseases is his book Naples and Florence: A Journey from Milan to Reggio where his unusual feelings during his journey in 1817 were mentioned. However the syndrome was precisely described and documented only in 1979 by the Italian psychiatrist Magerini. Nowadays this term is also used to describe the reaction of people while listening to the music of the era of romanticism.
- Latha is a rare illness affecting only the people of particular cultures (for example Malaysian), to which only adult women are subjected. It is characterized by an odd behavior of the patient. The women suffering from latha lose control of their actions, imitate the other people’s gestures and speech, cry out rude or nonsense separate words. Usually this disease is a consequence of the psychological shock, the patient becomes easily commanded and anxious. I this way the affected woman can be turned into a zombie, totally subordinate by someone else.
- The syndrome of exploding head. The people suffering from this disease hear different noises or even explosions inside their heads. Usually they hear these disturbing noises two hours later after falling asleep of just before they wake up. The patients complain about the uneasiness and anxiety accompanied by the pulse acceleration.
- Capgras delusion theory may affect the people after the psychological trauma or drug abuse. The patient suffering from that syndrome believes that the one of their close relatives is replaced by a clone. Usually one of the spouses refuse to sleep in one room with the supposed impostor. The doctors consider that this pathological state is caused by the lesion of a particular brain area.